When Yom Tov comes out on Sunday we must recite Kidush on Saturday night. Since it is Motzaei Shabbat we must recite the Havdalah as well. In this article we will discuss how one is meant to recite both Kidush and Havdalah using the same cup of wine.
There is a halachic principle that Mitzvot should not be bundled together therefore two acts of sanctification should not be done using the same cup of wine. The Gemara in Pesachim (102b) asks how then do we recite Havdalah and Kidush over one cup. The answer offered states that since Kidush and Havdalah come to differentiate between the mundane and holy days they represent two sides of the same coin and can be recited on one cup of wine.
Even though both Shabbat and Yom Tov are days of sanctity there is a difference as to the level of their sanctity. This distinction requires Havdalah for the conclusion of Shabbat and Kidush for the commencement of Yom Tov. The difference between the sanctity of Shabbat and that of Yom Tov is reflected in the number of men called up during the reading of the Torah. While on Yom Tov we call up five readers to the Torah on Shabbat seven are called up. The Gemarah in Megilah (22b) teaches that the greater the sanctity of the day the greater the number of people whom are called up to the Torah. Consequently, we can deduce that the sanctity of Shabbat is greater than that of Yom Tov which require making a distinction between them by reciting Kidush and Havdalah.
The centrality of the sanctity of Shabbat plays a central part in deciding the order of berachot of the combined Kidush- Havdalah ceremony. We find in the Gemarah (Pesachim 102b103a) seven different variations on the proper order of the berachot. One issue that guides the decision is the question whether the beracha on the wine should come first or be placed where it would clearly be associated with the Havdalah? A second question is whether the havdalah should proceed the Kidush or should Kidush be recited first? The Gemarah explains that the question here is whether it is more appropriate to first accompany the Shabbat out with Havdalah and then receive Yom Tov with Kidush, as one would accompany the king and then receive his governor? On the other hand one may argue that we should delay the departure of Shabbat as much as possible leading us to the conclusion of reciting Kidush before Havdalah. Another consideration is whether we want to preserve the usual order of berachot in Havdalah or not?
In the conclusion, the discussion is narrowed down to two opinions. The first is the opinion of Abaye who states that the proper order is to begin with the beracha on wine followed by Kidush, Zeman (Shehecheyanu), Ner (the blessing on fire) and
finally the beracha of Havdalah. Rava, on the other hand, is of the opinion that we should commence with the beracha for the wine followed by Kidush, Ner, Havdalah and conclude with Zeman. According to both opinions we follow the view of Rav to commence with the beracha on wine followed by Kidush which proceeds the Havdalah. They differ on whether Zeman should be recited in connection with the sanctification of the new Yom Tov or the last beracha as is done at other times.
In the Gemarah we find a ruling in favor of Rava’s opinion. We therefore recite the berachot in an order known as Ya-KNe-Ha-Z, Yayin (wine), Kidush, Ner, Havdalah, Zeman. This ruling is reflected in the Shulchan Aruch who states that when the night of the Seder falls on Saturday night we use the first of the four cups for Kidush and Havdalah reciting Yaknehaz.
According to this opinion the Havdala is to be recited in the same order it would usually be said with the Kidush inserted between the berachot on the wine and on the fire. The commentaries note that we omit the beracha of Besamim (smelling spices) and question what is the rationale for this omission. Several different suggestions are offered for this omission. The Rashbam in his commentary to the Gemarah in Pesachim suggests that since the besamim are meant to compensate for the loss of the additiional soul one has on Shabbat there is no need for besamim on Yom Tov since then, too, one has the additional soul. The Tosafot comments on Rashbam’s suggestion that if one has an additional soul on Yom Tov, then there would be a need for besamim at the conclusion of Yom Tov which we do not do. Consequently, the Tosafot suggests that the eating and drinking of the Yom Tov meal functions as compensation for the loss of the additional soul, in the same way the smell of the spices does on other occasions. Other Rishonim suggest that we do not use besamim due to wariness that people may come to crush the spices for a stronger smell. Most commentaries reject this explanation since they feel it would be permissible to crush the spice for the purpose of smell on Yom Tov just as we may do so for food. A fourth explanation is that besamim are used only when going from a time devoid of Melacha (creative work) such as Shabbat to a time when all melachot are permissable. Since on Yom Tov most melachot are prohibited there is no need for besamim. On the other hand, since some melachot are permitted on Yom Tov for the preparation of food, the change at the conclusion of Yom Tov is not as extreme and therefore does not require besamim.
In conclusion, since we move from one sanctity to another when Yom Tov falls on Saturday night we recite both Kidush and Havdalah using the Yaknehaz format and omit the beracha for besamim since none are needed.